Country Index

International Programs

Caregiver Credits in France, Germany, and Sweden: Lessons for the United States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 4 (released November 2011)
by John Jankowski

Analysts have long considered caregiver credits, or pension credits, provided to individuals for time spent out of the workforce caring for dependent children and sick or elderly relatives, as a way to improve the adequacy of retirement benefits for women in the United States. This article examines the experiences of France, Germany, and Sweden with caregiver credits, focusing particularly on the design, administration, and cost of these programs.

Next Generation of Individual Account Pension Reforms in Latin America
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 1 (released February 2011)
by Barbara E. Kritzer, Stephen J. Kay, and Tapen Sinha

This article examines the recent reforms in individual account systems in Latin America, with a focus on the recent overhaul of the Chilean system and major reforms in Mexico, Peru, and Colombia. The authors analyze key elements of pension reform in the region relating to individual accounts: system coverage, fees, competition, investment, the impact of gender on benefits, financial education, voluntary savings, and payouts.

The Canadian Safety Net for the Elderly
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68 No. 2 (released October 2008)
by Michael Wiseman and Martynas A. Yčas

Canada's Public Pensions System is widely applauded for reducing poverty among the elderly. This article reviews benefits provided to Canada's older people and compares the Canadian system to the U.S. Supplemental Security Income program. Although Canada's system would probably be judged prohibitively expensive for the United States, the authors argue that there are nevertheless lessons to be learned from the Canadian experience.

Chile's Next Generation Pension Reform
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68 No. 2 (released October 2008)
by Barbara E. Kritzer

Since its inception in 1981, Chile's system of mandatory individual retirement accounts has become a model for pension reformers around the world. A March 2008 comprehensive pension reform law made major changes that address some key policy challenges including worker coverage, gender equity, pension adequacy, and administrative fees. The cornerstone of the new law sets up a basic universal pension as a supplement to the individual accounts system.

KiwiSaver: New Zealand's New Subsidized Retirement Savings Plans
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 4 (released May 2008)
by Barbara E. Kritzer

On July 1, 2007, New Zealand introduced KiwiSaver, a new subsidized retirement savings plan. All new entrants to the labor force and anyone starting a new job are automatically enrolled in a plan and may opt out if they wish. Anyone younger than age 65, including the self-employed and anyone not in the labor force, may choose to set up a KiwiSaver account. The government provides tax credits for both employer and account holder contributions, a one-time tax-free payment to each account, and an annual fee subsidy to defray administrative costs.

The Evolution of Japanese Employer-Sponsored Retirement Plans
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 3 (released April 2008)
by David Rajnes

This article examines the development of Japanese voluntary employer-sponsored retirement plans with an emphasis on recent trends. Before 2001, companies in Japan offered retirement benefits as lump-sum severance payments and/or benefits from one of two types of defined benefit (DB) pension plans. One DB plan type was based on an earlier occupational pension model used in the United States. The other DB plan type allowed companies to opt out of the earnings-related portion of social security. Landmark laws passed in 2001 introduced a new generation of occupational retirement plans to employers and employees, creating three new DB plan designs and two new defined contribution types of plans. Since that time, the mix of employer-sponsored retirement plans offered in Japan has changed significantly, and overall employee coverage has declined. On balance, employer-sponsored retirement plans have remained largely DB in design.

Individual Accounts in Other Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66 No. 1 (released September 2005)
by Barbara E. Kritzer

To date, more than 30 countries have established some form of individual accounts in their retirement systems. This article identifies those countries, categorizes how the individual accounts fit into their retirement income systems, and identifies some basic characteristics of the accounts. Because this analysis of individual accounts is intended to inform the current United States debate involving Social Security, the discussion is limited to countries in which such accounts are part or all of a mandatory retirement income program.

Design and Implementation Issues in Swedish Individual Pension Accounts
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 4 (released May 2005)
by R. Kent Weaver

Sweden's new multipillar pension system includes a system of mandatory fully funded individual accounts. The Swedish system offers contributors more than 600 fund options from a variety of private-sector fund managers. However, in the most recent rounds of fund choice, more than 90 percent of new labor market entrants have not made an active choice of funds and thus have ended up in a government-sponsored default fund.

The Swedish system offers a number of lessons about implementing a mandatory individual account tier. Centralized administration keeps administrative costs down but requires considerable lead time. A very large number of fund options are likely to be offered unless strong entry barriers are in place. Engaging new labor market entrants in fund choice is likely to be difficult. A significant percentage of those making an active fund choice may choose funds that are very specialized and risky. Finally, special care must be devoted to designing a default fund and continual consumer communication.

Social Security Reform in Central and Eastern Europe: Variations on a Latin American Theme
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64 No. 4 (released June 2003)
by Barbara E. Kritzer

The Latin American model of social security reform with individual accounts has been adopted by a number of Central and Eastern European countries. That alternative to a pay-as-you-go system is sometimes advocated as a desirable model for solving problems in developed systems such as that of the United States. This article describes the Central and Eastern European systems and compares them with the Latin American systems.

Recent Changes to the Chilean System of Individual Accounts
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64 No. 4 (released June 2003)
by Barbara E. Kritzer

Chile was the first country to replace its public pay-as you-go system with individual accounts. Since its inception in 1981, the new program has undergone a number of changes that offer workers more choices than they had before. This note describes those changes, which include an increase in the type and number of funds from which a worker may choose for an individual account, more incentives for making additional voluntary contributions, and the introduction of a separate mandatory individual account for unemployment benefits.

The Canada Pension Plan's Experience with Investing Its Portfolio in Equities
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64 No. 2 (released September 2002)
by Mark A. Sarney and Amy M. Preneta

This article examines the experience of the Canada Pension Plan (CPP) in investing its surplus funds in equities. The CPP investment policy is viewed by some experts as a possible model for increasing the investment income of Social Security. The article discusses the key features of this policy, its implementation, and results to date.

Argentina's Pensions System
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64 No. 1 (released April 2002)
by Barbara E. Kritzer
Social Security Privatization in Latin America
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 63 No. 2 (released December 2000)
by Barbara E. Kritzer

The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has since been implemented, with some variations, in a number of Latin American and old-world transition economies with either a single- or multi-tier system. That alternative to a pay-as-you-go system is sometimes advocated as a desirable model for solving problems in developed systems, such as that of the United States. This article describes the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them.

Improving Return-to-Work Strategies in the United States Disability Programs, with Analysis of Program Practices in Germany and Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62 No. 3 (released January 2000)
by Joann Sim

This article examines suggestions by the General Accounting Office (GAO) to improve the rate of rehabilitation of workers on the disability rolls. It examines GAO's suggestions within the context of research by experts on return-to-work practices in Germany, Sweden, and the United States. It also discusses lessons learned from the European experiences and current and past return-to-work initiatives used in the Social Security Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income programs.

Retirement Income Security in the United Kingdom
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62 No. 1 (released June 1999)
by Lillian Liu

This article examines the U.K. retirement income security system from the American perspective. It addresses issues that most concern U.S. analysts: how the United Kingdom has kept its future public pension costs at a manageable level, the extent to which privatization of public pensions has contributed to low pensions costs, the popular appeal of individual pension accounts, and the impact of privatization on retirement income. These issues are best understood in the context of the U.K. pension program's particular institutional structure and policies, two of which—"contracting out" of public pensions, and strong reliance on means-tested benefits—have been largely rejected in the evolution of U.S. policy to date.

Particular use is made of recently available data on coverage rates for public and private pension programs over the total working population and administrative records on inactive personal pension accounts.

Retirement Income Security in the United Kingdom
ORES Working Paper No. 79 (released November 1998)
by Lillian Liu

This study examines the United Kingdom's retirement income security system from the American perspective. It addresses issues that most concern U.S. analysts: how the United Kingdom has kept its future public pension costs at a manageable level, the extent to which privatization of public pensions has contributed to these savings, the popular appeal of individual pension accounts, and the impact of privatization on retirement income. These issues are best understood in the context of the U.K. pension program's particular institutional structure and policies, two of which—"contracting out" of public pensions and strong reliance on means-tested benefits—have been largely rejected in the evolution of U.S. policy to date.

Particular use is made of recently available data on coverage rates for public and private pension programs over the total working population and administrative records on inactive personal pension accounts.

Privatizing Social Security: The Chilean Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 59 No. 3 (released July 1996)
by Barbara E. Kritzer

In 1981, Chile introduced a new approach to social insurance, a system of individual capitalization accounts financed solely by the employee. This new privatized system was an improvement over Chile's failing pay-as-you-go arrangement. As many countries worldwide are facing financial problems with their social security system, they are now looking to the Chilean model in trying to find solutions. This article describes the conditions that led to the new system, the transition, and details of the new privatized system.

Poverty Among Single Elderly Women Under Different Systems of Old-Age Security: A Comparative Review
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 59 No. 3 (released July 1996)
by Jürg K. Siegenthaler

This study takes stock of available comparative research on the economic status of elderly single women in six industrialized countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. A systematic comparison of income has become easier due to such standardized data bases as the Luxembourg Income Study.

But an explanation for different poverty rates among older women who are on their own requires a further, differentiated assessment of the countries' retirement benefit structures. This article attempts such a review. It makes use of a variety of single-country sources and takes into account the institutional heterogeneity of old-age security systems. The study concludes with a view of the effectiveness of different old-age security systems in preventing poverty among older single women.

Social Insurance Provisions for Children With Disabilities in Selected Industrialized Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 3 (released July 1995)
by Ilene R. Zeitzer

In the United States, low-income families who have a child or children with a disability may be eligible for cash benefits payable under the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. In the last few years, the number of these children on the SSI rolls has increased dramatically due, in large part, to new standards developed in response to a 1990 Supreme Court decision and the subsequent retroactive activity as a result of that decision. The rise in the number of child beneficiaries has led to increased concerns as to whether cash benefits are the best way to help these children and their families deal with the additional needs and expenses caused by disabilities. This article begins with a summary of recent American developments regarding the childhood disability issue as background to an exploration of comparative practices.

In light of the current interest in the United States concerning children with disabilities, it seems timely to explore the approaches used by other countries' social insurance programs. This study details the practices and provisions of 14 European countries and 4 other developed countries (Australia, Israel, Japan, and New Zealand). In addition to examining the variables involved in making cash benefits available and awarding them to families on behalf of disabled children, the article also provides information of in-kind benefits to which such families would be entitled and gives some insight as to the philosophy and policy goals of selected foreign programs.

Child Tax Benefits: A Comparison of the Canadian and U.S. Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 3 (released July 1994)
by Wayne S. Long
The Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Social Welfare Strategies
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 3 (released July 1994)
by Lawrence H. Thompson
Recent European Trends in Disability and Related Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 2 (released April 1994)
by Ilene R. Zeitzer
Income Security in Transition for the Aged and Children in the Soviet Union and in the Russian Federation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 56 No. 1 (released January 1993)
by Lillian Liu
Developments and Trends in Social Security, 1990–1992: Overview of Principal Trends
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 4 (released October 1992)
by Dalmer D. Hoskins
Social Security for State-Sector Workers in the People's Republic of China: The Reform Decade and Beyond
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 54 No. 10 (released October 1991)
by Lillian Liu
Forging Linkages—Modifying Disability Benefit Programs to Encourage Employment
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 10 (released October 1990)
by L. Scott Muller
Social Security in Portugal: Harmonizing for Europe 1992
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 8 (released August 1990)
by G. Ricardo Campbell
Investment of Social Security Reserves in Three Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 2 (released February 1990)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
National Expenditures on Social Security and Health in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 1 (released January 1990)
by Joseph G. Simanis
Worldwide Trends and Developments in Social Security, 1985–87
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 2 (released February 1989)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Administrative Costs for Social Security Programs in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 11 (released November 1988)
by Alexander Estrin
The Earnings Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits: An International Comparison
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 8 (released August 1988)
by Max Horlick
Commentary: Earnings Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits: An International Comparison
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 8 (released August 1988)
by Max Horlick
Health Care Expenditures: International Comparisons, 1970–80
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 10 (released October 1987)
by Joseph G. Simanis
Long-Term Disability Programs in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 9 (released September 1987)
by Ilene R. Zeitzer and Laurel E. Beedon
Social Security Reforms in Japan
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 8 (released August 1987)
by Lillian Liu
Recent Social Security Developments in the People's Republic of China
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 4 (released April 1987)
by Lillian Liu
Developments in the Equalization of Treatment of Men and Women Under Social Security in the Federal Republic of Germany
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 2 (released February 1987)
by Peter Puidak
Worldwide Trends and Developments in Social Security, 1983–85
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 9 (released September 1986)
by Jean Marie Ricketts
Administrative Costs for Social Security Programs in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 8 (released August 1986)
by Max Horlick
Social Security Reform Proposals in the United Kingdom: The White Paper
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 5 (released May 1986)
by Daniel Wartonick
Proposals for Social Security Reform in the United Kingdom
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 8 (released August 1985)
by Daniel Wartonick
Worldwide Developments in Social Security, 1981–83
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 6 (released June 1984)
by Ilene R. Zeitzer
Social Security Problems in Western European Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 2 (released February 1984)
by Lillian Liu
Family Income, Age, and Size of Unit: Selected International Comparisons
ORES Working Paper No. 32 (released February 1984)
by Daniel B. Radner

This exploratory paper examines the role of age in the distribution of family income in several countries. Unlike most papers that compare the distribution of income across countries, the primary concern in this paper is not with comparisons of the overall degree of inequality. Instead we are more interested in two aspects of the cross-section relationship between age and income. First, we are interested in the relative economic well-being of income recipient units in different age (of head) groups in several developed countries. In the U.S. in recent years, in connection with modifications to the social security system, there has been considerable discussion of the "fair" level of income of the aged population. That discussion has led us to a particular interest in the relative economic well-being of the aged population in other developed countries. Where the data allow, the aged (age 65 and over) group is split into 65–69 and 70 and over age groups as at least partial recognition that economic well-being can differ markedly among subgroups of the aged population. (Other important characteristics such as labor force participation, sex, and the receipt of government retirement income could not be examined.) This paper attempts an initial look at the very complex subject of the relative economic well-being of different age groups in several countries.

Chile Changes its Health Care System
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 12 (released December 1983)
by Barbara E. Kritzer
Highlights From Canadian Government Green Paper: Better Pensions for Canadians
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 8 (released August 1983)
Slowing Down Pension Indexing: The Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 6 (released June 1983)
by Daniel Wartonick and Michael D. Packard
Farmers' Pensions and the Polish Economic Crisis
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 4 (released April 1983)
by Joseph G. Simanis
Social Security Trends and Developments in Industrialized Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 3 (released March 1983)
by Ilene R. Zeitzer
The Earnings Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits in 12 Countries, 1969–80
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 11 (released November 1982)
by Jonathan Aldrich
Retirement Options Under the Swedish National Pension System
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 11 (released November 1982)
by Michael D. Packard
Consumer Price Indexes for the Elderly: British Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 1 (released January 1982)
by Lois S. Copeland
International Trends in Disability Program Growth
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 10 (released October 1981)
by Lois S. Copeland
Promotion of Subsidized Savings in the Federal Republic of Germany
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 10 (released October 1981)
Chile Changes Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 5 (released May 1981)
by Barbara E. Kritzer
Children's Allowances in the United Kingdom
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 10 (released October 1980)
by Lynn M. Ellingson
Worldwide Trends in Social Security, 1979
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 8 (released August 1980)
by Joseph G. Simanis
Variable Employer Contribution Rates in Finland
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 2 (released February 1980)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Health Care Expenditures in Nine Industrialized Countries, 1960–76
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 1 (released January 1980)
by Joseph G. Simanis and John R. Coleman
Recent Changes in French Family Allowance Policy
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 12 (released December 1979)
by Lynn M. Ellingson
Social Security: A Worldwide Issue
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 8 (released August 1979)
by Stanford G. Ross
Research Grants Studies
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 7 (released July 1979)
German Provisions for Deferred Retirement
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 6 (released June 1979)
by Max Horlick and Ingrid Wooten
Italy's National Health Service Plan
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 4 (released April 1979)
by Frank B. McArdle
Mandating Private Pensions: Experience in Four European Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 3 (released March 1979)
by Max Horlick
Foreign Weighted Benefit Formulas
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 11 (released November 1978)
Recent Social Security Developments in Japan
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 10 (released October 1978)
by Angus Simmons
Social Security and Job-Creation Measures: Recent French Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 9 (released September 1978)
by Lois S. Copeland
Italy's Indexing, Minimum Benefits, and Pension Reform
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 8 (released August 1978)
by Frank B. McArdle
Israel's Program Revision for Families with Children
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 7 (released July 1978)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Flexible Retirement Features Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 5 (released May 1978)
by Martin B. Tracy
Worldwide Developments in Social Security, 1975–77
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 5 (released May 1978)
by Lois S. Copeland
Impact of Recession on Swiss Pension Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 4 (released April 1978)
by Frank B. McArdle
Recent Social Security Developments in Austria
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 2 (released February 1978)
by Lois S. Copeland
Earnings-Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits, 1965–75, Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 1 (released January 1978)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Kinship and Social Security in a Micronesian Society
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 10 (released October 1977)
by Keith M. Marshall and Mark Borthwich
New Retirement-Age Features in Belgium
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 7 (released July 1977)
by Lois S. Copeland
Earnings Index and Old-Age Benefits in West Germany
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 3 (released March 1977)
by Max Horlick
Effect of Recession on Financing of German Pension Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 2 (released February 1977)
by Lois S. Copeland
Alimony and Public Income Support: Fifteen Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 1 (released January 1977)
by Elizabeth Kreitler Kirkpatrick
France Gradually Lowers Retirement Age
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 12 (released December 1976)
by Lois S. Copeland
Maintaining Value of Social Security Benefits During Inflation: Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 11 (released November 1976)
by Martin B. Tracy
Housewives and Pensions Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 9 (released September 1976)
by Robert W. Weise, Jr.
Impact of Recession on Financing of French Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 7 (released July 1976)
by Lois S. Copeland
Administrative Costs for Social Security Programs in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 6 (released June 1976)
by Max Horlick
Social Security Funding Practices in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 5 (released May 1976)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
World Developments and Trends in Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 4 (released April 1976)
by Martin B. Tracy
New Retirement Options in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 3 (released March 1976)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Foreign Health Programs: Changes in Population Covered
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 1 (released January 1976)
by Joseph G. Simanis and Peter Benson
Payroll Taxes Under Social Security Programs: Cross-National Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 12 (released December 1975)
by Martin B. Tracy
Social Security Revision in the United Kingdom
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 11 (released November 1975)
by Martin B. Tracy
Canada Pension Plan Amended
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 8 (released August 1975)
by Robert W. Weise, Jr.
New Private Pension Law in the Federal Republic of Germany
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 7 (released July 1975)
by Max Horlick
Guaranteed Income In Belgium
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 5 (released May 1975)
by Frankie P. Taylor
New Contributory Pension Program in New Zealand
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 3 (released March 1975)
by Martin B. Tracy
The Retirement Test: An International Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 7 (released July 1974)
by Elizabeth Kreitler Kirkpatrick
Swedish Unemployment Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 3 (released March 1974)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Lower Pensionable Age in Norway
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 1 (released January 1974)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Dental Insurance in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 12 (released December 1973)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Supplemental Security Income for the Aged: Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 12 (released December 1973)
by Max Horlick
Sweden: Cash Maternity Benefits for Fathers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 11 (released November 1973)
by Martin B. Tracy
Switzerland: Compulsory Private Pensions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 10 (released October 1973)
by Max Horlick
No-Fault Accident Compensation in New Zealand
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 9 (released September 1973)
by Elizabeth Kreitler Kirkpatrick
Flexible Retirement Feature of German Pension Reform
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 7 (released July 1973)
by Gisela C. Wang
The European Experience in Social Health Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 7 (released July 1973)
by Jozef Van Langendonck
Social Security Revisions in Spain
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 4 (released April 1973)
by Max Horlick
Medical Care Expenditures in Seven Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 3 (released March 1973)
by Joseph G. Simanis
Major Social Security Issues: Japan, 1972
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 3 (released March 1973)
by Paul Fisher
New British Programs: Early Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 1 (released January 1973)
by Elizabeth Kreitler Kirkpatrick
Guaranteed Children's Allowances in Belgium
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 11 (released November 1972)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Recent Changes in Russian Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 10 (released October 1972)
by Joseph G. Simanis
Philippine Medical Care Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 9 (released September 1972)
by Paul Fisher
Commission Studies Rising Health Costs in Austria
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 8 (released August 1972)
by Elizabeth Kreitler Kirkpatrick
Social Reports of the German Federal Republic, 1970–71
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 7 (released July 1972)
by Paul Fisher
Medical Care Agreement With French Doctors
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 7 (released July 1972)
by Robert W. Weise, Jr.
Children's Allowances in Japan
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 6 (released June 1972)
by Elizabeth Kreitler Kirkpatrick
Children's Allowances: Their Size and Structure in Five Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 5 (released May 1972)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Higher Old-Age Pensions in France
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 5 (released May 1972)
by Robert W. Weise, Jr.
Switzerland Changes Social Insurance Philosophy
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 4 (released April 1972)
by Elizabeth Kreitler Kirkpatrick
New Benefits for Blue-Collar Workers in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 1 (released January 1972)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Amendments to Australia's National Health Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 12 (released December 1971)
by Evelyn Peel
Social Security Provisions for Young Adults in Industrialized Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 11 (released November 1971)
by Max Horlick
Special Retirement Programs for Farmers: New Japanese Law
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 10 (released October 1971)
by Dalmer D. Hoskins
Introduction of Survivor Pension Program in India
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 8 (released August 1971)
by Dalmer D. Hoskins
Recent Changes in Mexican Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 7 (released July 1971)
by Robert W. Weise, Jr.
Social Security Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 6 (released June 1971)
Role of the Contribution Ceiling in Social Security Programs: Comparison of Five Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 2 (released February 1971)
by Max Horlick and Robert Lucas
Recent Social Security Reforms in France
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 1 (released January 1971)
by Dalmer D. Hoskins
International Health Expenditures
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 12 (released December 1970)
by Joseph G. Simanis
Private Health Insurance in West Germany and Great Britain
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 10 (released October 1970)
by Joseph G. Simanis
Worldwide Developments in Social Security, 1967–69
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 8 (released August 1970)
Changes in the Sickness Insurance Program in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 8 (released August 1970)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Liberalizations In Turkey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 7 (released July 1970)
by Max Horlick and Joseph G. Simanis
Antipoverty Policies and Changing Welfare Concepts in Canada
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 7 (released July 1970)
Mental Retardation in Four Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 5 (released May 1970)
by Joseph G. Simanis
Adjustment of Old-Age Pensions in Foreign Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 5 (released May 1970)
by Max Horlick and Doris E. Lewis
The Earnings Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits: An International Comparison
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 3 (released March 1970)
by Max Horlick
Social Security Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 2 (released February 1970)
by Joseph G. Simanis and Gisela C. Wang
Recent Changes in Norwegian Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 1 (released January 1970)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Poverty in Israel
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 11 (released November 1969)
by Doris K. Lewis
Higher Family Allowances in France
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 10 (released October 1969)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Guaranteed Income for the Aged in Belgium
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 9 (released September 1969)
by Doris K. Lewis
Expansion of Canada's Medicare
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 7 (released July 1969)
by Joseph G. Simanis
Social Security Changes in Italy
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 6 (released June 1969)
by Robert W. Weise, Jr.
British White Paper On Social Security Reform
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 5 (released May 1969)
Social Security Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 5 (released May 1969)
British Commonwealth Areas of the Caribbean
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 4 (released April 1969)
by Robert W. Weise, Jr.
Contribution and Benefit Increases in Switzerland
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 3 (released March 1969)
by Max Horlick
Bermuda's New Social Security Law
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 2 (released February 1969)
Further Social Security Amendments in France
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 1 (released January 1969)
by Robert W. Weise, Jr.
Improvements in Belgian Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 12 (released December 1968)
by Robert Lucas
Extension of Workmen's Accident Insurance in Japan
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 10 (released October 1968)
Bulgaria Revises Family Allowances
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 10 (released October 1968)
Prospects for Unemployment Insurance in Israel
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 9 (released September 1968)
Extension of Social Security Coverage in Chile
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 9 (released September 1968)
Canadian Medical Care Insurance Inaugurated
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 9 (released September 1968)
Comparing the Financial Position of the Aged in Britain and the United States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 7 (released July 1968)
by Dorothy Wedderburn
Changes in Italian Social Security System
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 7 (released July 1968)
by Max Horlick and Robert Lucas
Recent Developments in Argentine Pension Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 6 (released June 1968)
by Robert Lucas
Social Security Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 5 (released May 1968)
Social Security Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 4 (released April 1968)
Social Security and Development Planning: Some Issues
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 6 (released June 1967)
by Paul Fisher
Social Security Issues: Fiftieth International Labor Conference
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 11 (released November 1966)
by Robert J. Myers and William M. Yoffee
Social Security in the New African Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 1 (released January 1966)
by Daniel S. Gerig
Income-Loss Protection Against Short-Term Sickness, 1948–64
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 1 (released January 1966)
by Saul Waldman
Canada Pension Plan of 1965
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 11 (released November 1965)
by Daniel S. Gerig and Robert J. Myers
Relation of Social Security Expenditures to Gross National Product in 45 Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 6 (released June 1965)
by Werner Hasenberg
International Social Security Organizations: United States Participation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 9 (released September 1964)
by William M. Yoffee
Social Security Programs of Foreign Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 9 (released September 1964)
by Daniel S. Gerig
Ontario's "Portable Pension" Law
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 9 (released September 1963)
Report on the World Social Situation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 8 (released August 1963)
Developments in Foreign Social Security Plans
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 5 (released May 1963)
Medical Benefits for Old-Age Pensioners Under Foreign Social Security Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 1 (released January 1963)
by Daniel S. Gerig and Carl H. Farman
Canada's Old-Age Security Program: First Decade of Operations
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 12 (released December 1962)
by Robert J. Myers
Developments in Foreign Social Security Plans
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 11 (released November 1962)
Social Progress Through Credit Unions in Peru
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 8 (released August 1962)
by William E. Allen
A Report on the Fourteenth General Meeting of the International Social Security Association
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 2 (released February 1962)
A Quarter Century of Social Security Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 8 (released August 1960)
by Daniel S. Gerig
Automatic Cost-of-Living Adjustment of Pensions in Foreign Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 3 (released March 1960)
by Daniel S. Gerig
Medical Benefits For Pensioners Under Foreign Social Security Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 1 (released January 1960)
by Daniel S. Gerig and Carl H. Farman
New Graduated Pension System in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 11 (released November 1959)
New Graduated Retirement Benefits in Great Britain
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 9 (released September 1959)
Social Security in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 8 (released August 1959)
Canada's Federal-Provincial Program of Hospitalization Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 7 (released July 1959)
by Agnes W. Brewster
UNICEF's New Program for Children
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 5 (released May 1959)
by Katherine Bain
Foreign Social Security Programs in 1958
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 11 (released November 1958)
by Daniel S. Gerig
Provisions for the Protection of Children in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 9 (released September 1958)
by Margaret Emery
Provisions for the Protection of Children in Belgium and Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 6 (released June 1958)
by Margaret Emery
Canadian Programs for the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 5 (released May 1958)
by Robert J. Myers
Social Security in Central America
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 11 (released November 1957)
by Carl H. Farman
World Trends in Social Security Benefits, 1955 to 1957
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 8 (released August 1957)
by Carl H. Farman
International Conference of Social Work: Eighth Session
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 11 (released November 1956)
by Dorothy Lally
Orientation of International Trainees
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 7 (released July 1956)
by Cecile Whalen
World Trends in Social Security Benefits, 1935–55
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 5 (released May 1956)
by Carl H. Farman
Programs of Social Development: United Nations Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 12 (released December 1955)
Canadian Act for Assistance to Disabled Persons
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 2 (released February 1955)
Seventh International Conference of Social Work
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 11 (released November 1954)
by Dorothy Lally
Social Security in Israel
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 7 (released July 1954)
by Wilbur J. Cohen and Carl H. Farman
Cost of the British Social Services, 1938–52
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 2 (released February 1954)
Private Pension Plans in Six Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 8 (released August 1953)
by H. Walter Forster and Herman B. Brotman
Social Security in India
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 5 (released May 1953)
by Wilbur J. Cohen
Income-Maintenance Programs for the Aged, United States and Great Britain
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 9 (released September 1952)
Social Welfare Expenditures, United States and Great Britain, 1949–50
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 7 (released July 1952)
New Canadian Programs for the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 4 (released April 1952)
Public Assistance Concepts in an International Agency
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 5 (released May 1951)
by Marie Dresden Lane
Turkish Retirement and Health Insurance Acts, 1949–50
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 8 (released August 1950)
British National Health Services Expenditures
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 6 (released June 1950)
Social Security Agreements in Western Europe
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 4 (released April 1950)
World Developments in Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 3 (released March 1950)
by Carl H. Farman
Coverage of the Self-Employed Under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance: Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 8 (released August 1949)
by Wilbur J. Cohen
Planning Observation Programs for Foreign Welfare Personnel
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 5 (released May 1949)
by Anna W. Schneider and Mary S. Labaree
Social Welfare in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 4 (released April 1949)
by Konrad Persson
First Session of UN's Permanent Social Commission
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 2 (released February 1947)
by Dorothy Lally
The New British System of Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 2 (released February 1947)
by Carl H. Farman and Catherine Perrins
UNRRA and War's Aftermath
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 11 (released November 1945)
by Ellen S. Woodward
Permanent Committee of the Inter-American Conference of Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 10 (released October 1945)
UNRRA—A Democratic Plan for International Relief
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 11 (released November 1944)
by Ellen S. Woodward
The 1944 International Labor Conference
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 6 (released June 1944)
by Jessica H. Barr
Some Experiments With Contribution Rate Differentials in British Unemployment Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 12 (released December 1943)
by Amy G. Maher
Pensions and Rehabilitation Services for Disabled Ex-Servicemen in the U.S.S.R.
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 4 (released April 1943)
by Denis A. Cooper
The Future of Medicine in Great Britain: A Review fo the Medical Planning Research Report
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 3 (released March 1943)
Labor Scarcity and Labor-Market Policy Under an Armament Program in Germany and Great Britain
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 9 (released September 1942)
by Constance A. Kiehel
Bibliography on War Measures of Foreign Countries in Social Insurance and Related Fields
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 4 (released April 1942)
by Fred Safier and Arthur F. Ackermann
Foreign Provisions for the Dependents of Mobilized Men
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 4 (released April 1941)
by Marianne Sakmann
Medical Services Under Health Insurance Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 12 (released December 1940)
by I. S. Falk
Austrian Experience with Retraining to Meet Labor-Market Needs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 10 (released October 1940)
by Arnold Steinbach
Extension of the Scope of National Assistance Programs in Great Britain
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 6 (released June 1940)
by Ida C. Merriam and Diane Bochner
British Contributory Pensions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 4 (released April 1939)
by Alexander Fleisher and Eric Kocher
Seasonal Workers and Unemployment Insurance in Great Britain, Germany, and Austria
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 12 (released December 1938)
by Franz Huber
Unemployment and Health Insurance in Great Britain, 1911–37
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 8 (released August 1938)
by Marianne Sakmann
Deciding Claims to Unemployment Benefits; An Outline of the British System
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 7 (released July 1938)
by Ralph S. Hardiman
Old-Age Insurance for Agricultural Workers in Western Europe
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 6 (released June 1938)
by Thomas C. Blaisdell, Jr.